Passive (self-sacrificing) resistance
The story of passive resistance is, probably, as ancient as humanity itself. Among the first such cases was the one of St. John and it was recorded in the Old Testament. Then, there is surely the greatest resistance to evil, Christ's voluntary crucifixion. This example was followed by thousands of christians, who suffered torture and execution in most brutal fashion without putting up a fight. This was characteristic to the first three centuries A.D., as well as to the age of Roman-Catholic Inquisition and Communist Dictatorship, during which time christians never lost faith in Christ. These are all examples of individual sacrifice, but often was the case a of collective and organized passive resistance. For example, let us recall another event recorded in the Old Testament, when the Jewish people refused to obey the Egyptians and made a wondrous journey to a promised land. They managed then to free themselves from tyranny and slavery without using any sort of arms. Also interesting is the victory of the Russian army under the command of General Kutuzov over the army of Napoleon Bonaparte, which was realized by giving up vast territories and a depleted Moscow to the French without defending them.
In more recent times the most significant case of passive resistance is the Indian liberation from English rule, lead by the legendary Ghandi. The Czech example was our model for a long time, but we have superseded it a while ago.
The basic characteristics of passive resistance: